The human respiratory system is an vital organ system that carries out life-sustaining processes. Like other organ systems, it is prone to a plethora of diseases, both systematic and non-systematic. The objective of this research article is to compare and contrast two lethal respiratory diseases: lung cancer and tuberculosis. This article discusses the scientific nature, the diagnosis, the treatment, and the social and ethical impacts of the two diseases. In particular, this article dissects and presents ethical issues pertaining to tuberculosis, a disease that has been dubbed a social disease, and lung cancer. This article provides an insight into health sciences and its relationship with the greater society.