The human respiratory system is an vital organ system that carries out life-sustaining processes. Like other organ systems, it is prone to a plethora of diseases, both systematic and non-systematic. The objective of this research article is to compare and contrast two lethal respiratory diseases: lung cancer and tuberculosis. This article discusses the scientific nature, the diagnosis, the treatment, and the social and ethical impacts of the two diseases. In particular, this article dissects and presents ethical issues pertaining to tuberculosis, a disease that has been dubbed a social disease, and lung cancer. This article provides an insight into health sciences and its relationship with the greater society.
Honey: sweet, delicious and great on toast! After proving a hit in our kitchen cupboards, honey is now making its way into our medicine cabinets too; next time you have a sore throat you may be reaching for the honey jar. This study looks at three different types of honey and their medicinal qualities against bacteria. Standard processed honey, unprocessed honey and medicinal grade Manuka honey all killed samples of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, proving all of these honeys to have antibacterial properties. The Manuka honey, however, had a greater antibacterial effect against both bacteria, suggesting that Manuka honey is the best for medicinal use.
Materials have specific properties which make them useful for certain applications. Medicine is an area in which various material characteristics find a role in the human body. Spider silk fibre has revolutionary properties which make it an excellent new biomaterial. This review article will explore the chemistry, physics and biology of this material. Spider silk fibre has more recently also been reverse engineered into the physical state of an aqueous and ultra-thin film state. This opens up additional possibilities. It also allows implantation of silk material based devices within the human body in a manner that seamlessly conforms to biotic-abiotic interface. The versatile uses of spider silk in medicine include micro sutures (a type of joint found in the skull) with more strength, sturdy bio-scaffolds for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering for artificial skin and nerve grafts, tendon and ligament repair with the required strength and elasticity, weight-bearing artificial knee menisci in Orthopaedic surgery, liquid silk for biological wound dressings, silk micro particles for drug delivery and finally silk optics, bio-photonics, biosensors and bio electronics. The practical challenges and scope of research will revolve around the mass production and genetic engineering of spider silk, and reinventing a material that has existed for millennia.
In this article, I will explore the complexity of lung cancer and why it is classed as one of the most deadly cancers. As well as this, I will explain how different types of lung cancer are classified depending on the cells present in tumours and how the classification affects the treatment a patient is given. Furthermore, I will look at the current treatments for lung cancer and how they are used. And last but not least, I will explain what Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are and how they may be able to help scientists diagnose and treat lung cancer in the near future.
This article will explore the use of stem cells to treat type 1 diabetes. I will outline information about the disease itself, before explaining what the different types of stem cells are. Then I will discuss how the different types of stem cells can be used to treat type 1 diabetes, and debate some of the ethical issues associated with the use of stem cells.
Through this discussion I wanted to explore the impacts of the principle of free health care at the point of delivery. This is a fundamental principle of our National Health Service and as such it is essential to consider the implications of this for our health system and within the wider health service.
In this report I am aiming to identify the extent to which artificial colourings affect behaviour. I aim to do this by looking at previous studies that have been conducted and by analysing them. I also aim to look at a brief history of artificial colourings. In the second half of the report I aim to look at how the impact artificial colourings have on behaviour could be reduced, this will be done by looking at methods that are currently in place throughout the world and by suggesting other methods hat could be used.
Artificial colours are one of the many different types of additives us, as humans come into contact with in our everyday lives. Artificial colours are mainly added to food products in order to make them more aesthetically pleasing. Artificial colourings are also used for many other reasons, for example in the fashion industry for dying clothes and in paint. A topic that has been in and out of the news worldwide many times and has been researched in great detail by scientists across the globe for many years is the topic of additives and their effects on behaviour and more importantly, artificial colours. Artificial colours that are found in food are just one of the many concerns of parents in the 21st century. This is because they have been lead to believe that artificial colours are a major causal factor of behavioural issues such as hyperactivity and aggression in children, and that they could also strongly influence a child with ADHD’s levels of hyperactivity and learning abilities. But, how much of this is true? To what extent do artificial colours have an effect on behaviour? Could this be reduced? Are there more suitable alternatives without sacrificing the vivid colours? Or could we completely eradicate the use of artificial colour in our everyday lives?
Human papillomavirus related cancers is a modern challenge, affecting mainly the younger generation. High-risk HPV causes 99% of cervical cancer and many other cancers of vagina, vulva, penis, anus and oral cavity. Most commonly, they cause precancerous changes in the cells of cervix which can be detected on smear test and effectively treated. Cancer of the cervix is therefore preventable. The burden and cost of HPV-associated disease and cancer is an important public health problem. Reducing the burden of HPV-associated cancer and disease through vaccination requires an integrated approach that includes clinical medicine, public health, and public policy at a global level. With the introduction of HPV vaccination against cervical cancer, the war on HPV has started but there is still a long way to go, especially with other cancers which are on the rise. There are clinical trials looking at effectiveness of HPV vaccines against other cancers and also on therapeutic vaccines to be used in people with HPV positive conditions. There is however a strong need to educate the younger generation about healthy and responsible sexual practices and increase awareness of HPV related diseases and cancers, in men as well as women.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that are highly expressed in tumours and are thought to have an important role in the advancement of cancer. Of particular interest is their contribution to metastasis – the spread of cancer around the body. As a result, they are currently being researched with the endeavour to develop new anticancer agents, with inhibitors of MMPs considered to be a viable option for future use in chemotherapy. Furthermore, these enzymes could be used to improve the way in which the body metabolises anti-cancer drugs, a method in which the drugs are only activated in the presence of MMPs in the tumour, and so reducing the potential for harmful side effects.
With our population continuing to live for longer, doctors are beginning to learn about new conditions that affect our ageing population. Hemispatial neglect is a condition that causes patients to ‘ignore’ half of their space after a trauma to the brain which withdraws the ability to respond to sensory stimuli on the affected side. This article will discuss the causes of and treatments for hemispatial neglect, including the disabling effects on the individual.
In this article, I will be explaining how angiogenic inhibitors are being used to treat cancer. I will discuss what angiogenesis is and how tumors trigger blood vessels to begin to grow into them, provide them with nutrients and oxygen that the tumor requires to survive.
Through analysis of cutting edge research, I will outline the various mechanisms of action drugs can take to prevent angiogenesis in detail, from changing the shapes of protein receptors to infiltrating our DNA. Finally, I will discuss their possible future in the world of medicine as well as some of their dark pasts.
This short article discusses the relatively new bioactive glasses which have been extensively experimented with in the field of regenerative medicine and have shown promising results. We will look at how this is a more viable alternative to already existing options in bone tissue regeneration, and also briefly at the mechanisms of how these materials actually work in the human body.