The purpose of this project is to find out more about how cosmic rays are affected by the Earth’s atmosphere, if cosmic rays are related to lightning strikes and where they originate from. To test our hypotheses on the behaviour of cosmic rays, we constructed and tested a detector at our school, to be used for collecting data on cosmic rays. This information will be analysed and used by scientists all over the world to aid their research. In years to come, future students will be able to use the scintillator to test other hypotheses and contribute to the scientific community. This article will describe our current progress on constructing the detector.
Funding StatementRoyal Society Partnership Grant
The purpose of this project is to find out more about how cosmic rays, high energy charged particles that travel to Earth from outer space. Specifically, we want to find out whether they are affected by the Earth’s atmosphere, if they are related to lightning strikes and where they originate from. Our objectives are:
HiSPARC is an international, hands-on, physics research experiment which allows students to participate in actual European research collaboration3. It was created 10 years ago and there are currently around 90 detector stations in the Netherlands, along with many other active detectors in Denmark, Vietnam, Kenya and other countries around the world. The fact that similar detectors to ours are dotted all over the world will give us insight into how weather and climate relate to cosmic rays. The research and investigation of cosmic rays is fairly new, which means our findings and work could lead to pioneering discoveries. It is a rare opportunity for us to work with professionals and hi-tech equipment, and has opened our eyes to the world of particle physics.
Little is known in depth about the nature and origin of cosmic rays. As they are charged particles, the interstellar magnetic fields cause their trajectories to change numerous times4. Cosmic ray detectors allow us to measure the energy these particles have, expanding our scientific understanding of them. Any data that we collect will contribute to the scientific community and our understanding of cosmic rays, providing us with ground-breaking information and widening our knowledge of the universe. We aspire to gain a better understanding of cosmic rays and their behaviour in multiple scenarios as well as answering our specific questions about them.
Prior to starting this project, we were unaware of the nature of cosmic rays, so we carried out research through various means, primarily the internet, to find secondary data and research to aid us. We also asked the professionals working with us about cosmic rays, because they had invaluable past experience with HiSPARC.
Most of the cosmic rays that reach the Earth are muons5. A muon is a type of lepton particle, similar to the electron but with a larger mass. The mass of a muon is about 200 times the mass of an electron.
Our detector is made of a slab of a substance which exhibits scintillation; namely, it luminesces when excited by ionising radiation. When a high energy particle passes through the scintillator slab, it gives energy to the atoms in the scintillator, also known as exciting them. The atoms release flashes of light (photons) and return to their ground state, the lowest energy state of an atom or other particle. The detector also includes a photomultiplier tube, which can detect faint amounts of light by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect6. This effect involves electrons being emitted from certain metals when light hits them. Within the photomultiplier tube, the photons hit the photocathode, a plate coated with a light sensitive material that has a low work function, meaning the material loses its electrons easily. These electrons are multiplied into a measurable electric current by a chain of electrodes, called dynodes, using potential difference. They travel along the tube, bouncing off the dynodes and producing more and more electrons7.
Construction of the Detector
To build the cosmic ray detector, we took the following steps.
Testing the Detector
We had numerous complications with the optical glue. For instance, it would not set properly and the scintillator parts would come apart. To overcome this hurdle, we carefully scraped the glue off, so that the scintillator was not scratched, to create a smooth surface for the new optical glue to be applied. The first time we created the glue, air bubbles were present, so we tried using a vacuum subsequently – however, that approach was unsuccessful. A second attempt also proved unsuccessful. The third time we created the glue, we stirred very slowly and cautiously to prevent any air bubbles from entering. This was successful and the scintillators were glued together, ready to use and collect data.
It is vital for us to carry out light leaking tests consistently; if there are light leaks in the scintillator, they could interfere with the cosmic rays to be detected. That is why we must double check and make any necessary repairs. No light must enter through the black plastic sheet over the aluminium; otherwise, the noise caused by the light leak would overcome the signal from cosmic rays. Voltage is important and must be optimised for the correct use of the photomultipliers. We will test a range of different voltages, keeping a record of the results. We will compare the data inside a room where all lights are off, and finally compare all results to check for light leaks within the scintillator. We want to find the conditions in which all signals from cosmic muons are detected efficiently with minimum noise. This is essential as this data will determine how many cosmic rays pass through the scintillator considering the variables that are provided. After this has been carried out, we will record the events in which muons pass through both our two scintillators at the same time, as this indicates that a shower has passed.
The detector now belongs to our school and has been installed on the roof. It will stay there for years to come, so that many students will have the chance to do research with it. It is imperative that we continuously gather the data from the scintillators. This will enable us to collect a sample large enough to find strong, reliable trends that support our hypothesis. All the processed data will be then sent to our collaborators in other parts of the world, like the Netherlands, where they will be collectively analysed using cutting-edge technology. It is to determine whether there are any similar trends or even differences in all the data. A cause for the results can then hopefully be found. We are still in the process of establishing the best working conditions for the scintillators, but we will soon start our investigation on cosmic rays. We are very excited about doing real research with real scientists, and we hope to discover something new and significant! This work has been made possible by funding from the Royal Society. We will present our work at the Summer Exhibition.
AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank Cristina Lazzeroni and Angela from the University of Birmingham, as well as our Physics teachers, Abdul Salom and Ingrid Murray, for supporting us with this project.
- A. V. Gurevich, G. M. Milikh, R. A. Roussel-Dupre, Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992).
- Preuss, P. (2012) "Where Do the Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays Come From? Probably Not from Gamma-Ray Bursts", Berkeley Lab News Centre, Online.
- The HiSPARC website
- Mewalt, R.A. (1996) "Cosmic Rays", Online.
- Kliewer, S. (2006) "Muons", The Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Telescope Project, Online.
- ET Enterprises (2011) "Understanding Photomultipliers", Online.
- Nave, R. (2013), "The Photoelectric Effect", HyperPhysics, Online.